When the gas contacts the water, several reactive oxygen species emerge that assist with microbiological control. By safely cycling up the water into an alkaline state, the water becomes less corrosive. Traditional Chemical Water Treatment Condenser water treatment, comprised of chemical additives, to control scale and corrosion and inhibit microbiological growth.
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Water Utility Audit and Rebate Program: We show you ways to save on water and assist at implementing treatment programs that qualify for municipal rebates. Water Treatment Solutions. Water Treatment Solutions Overview RK Water specializes in water conditioning and treatment for steam boilers, open condenser and closed-loop systems.
Steam and Closed Loop Systems Chilled water loop treatment: We apply chemical treatment on the closed chilled side of a recirculating cooling system to prevent scale, corrosion and microbiological growth. Heating water loop treatment: We apply chemical treatment on the closed heated side of a recirculating heating system to prevent scale, corrosion and microbiological growth. Steam boiler treatment: Prior to initial firing, boilers are inspected on both the fire side and water side. All valves, nozzles, baffles, water columns, cutoffs and other components are checked and adjusted for proper operation.
Makeup water pre-treatment: We perform softening and other treatments to makeup water to improve system performance. Laboratory Services Water testing and analysis: Complete analysis on makeup, open-loop and closed-loop water systems. In this model, oxidation occurs at the anode of the corrosion cell where iron Fe is dissolved into the water.
The electrons released at the anode travel through the metal to the cathode where oxygen O 2 is reduced to form hydroxide ions. The hydroxide is then available to react with the ferrous iron to form an insoluble by-product of corrosion, ferrous hydroxide. Frequently, the iron oxides deposit at the site of corrosion resulting in the formation of numerous tubercles along the metal surface. If the tubercles are scraped away with a putty knife or wire brush, the bare metal reveals a series of pits that have formed as a result of the oxidation reaction.
The electrochemical corrosion cell consists of four components: 1 an anodic site, 2 a cathodic site, 3 a current path metal , and 4 an electrolyte water. The rate of the corrosion reaction is dependent on several variables including the amount of dissolved oxygen available at the cathode, temperature, the pH of the water, water velocity, and total dissolved solids.
In cooling water chemistry, the primary rate controlling factor is the amount of dissolved oxygen available at the metal surface. Effective corrosion control relies on the ability of chemical inhibitors to retard or inhibit the chemical reaction that occurs at either the anode or the cathode.
Corrosion inhibitors that are effective in controlling the reactions that occur at the anode are called anodic inhibitors. Those that function at the cathode are called cathodic inhibitors. These inhibitors are thought to work by virtue of their ability to form a molecular film on the metal surface.
Various corrosion inhibitors are added to cooling water systems to control the rate of corrosion on mild steel, copper and copper alloys, stainless steel, galvanized steel, and aluminum.
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Since some inhibitors are more effective in controlling corrosion of a particular metal than others, the corrosion control program should be tailored to the system metallurgy. An effective cooling water treatment program always begins with an audit of the system metallurgy, equipment design and materials of construction. Once this is completed, an effective corrosion control program can be implemented. Here are some of the more popular and effective cooling water corrosion inhibitors.
Polyphosphate functions by forming an inhibitor film at the cathode of the corrosion cell. This inhibitor is most effective on mild steel, and does not protect copper or aluminum. The best protection occurs when the calcium level in the cooling water is maintained within to ppm.
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If the calcium exceeds ppm, precipitation of calcium phosphate is possible especially in low-flow less than 1 foot per second areas of the system. Typical dosages of polyphosphate are 10 to 30 ppm as PO 4. The pH of the cooling water should be maintained within 5.
Orthophosphate forms in the cooling water as a result of the hydrolysis decomposition of polyphosphate. Orthophosphate is an anodic inhibitor. It is also less soluble than polyphosphate and reacts with calcium to precipitate tricalcium phosphate at high calcium concentration and at elevated pH. Orthophosphate is not commonly used alone in cooling water treatment for these reasons.
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Zinc is a cathodic inhibitor for steel, but does not provide effective protection for copper or aluminum. Typical dosages are 1 to 5 ppm at a controlled pH of 6. Zinc is less soluble at higher pH. Zinc is toxic to fish and microorganisms at concentrations above 3 ppm. Because of solubility and toxicity restraints, zinc is rarely used alone in cooling water treatment programs.
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Molybdate is frequently used as a corrosion inhibitor in open and closed cooling water systems. Early recommendations called for to ppm sodium molybdate for mild steel inhibition.
When compared to other inhibitors, molybdate is costly. This fact tended to restrict the use of molybdate to closed cooling water systems. When combined with zinc, phosphate or polysilicate, however, molybdate dosages can be reduced to 5 to 10 ppm, which significantly reduces the treatment costs. Often it is used less as a corrosion inhibitor and more as a chemical tracer to facilitate the testing for the product dosage.
Molybdates were initially thought to be non-toxic. The EPA, however, is still investigating the environmental impact molybdate has on waste sludge and in the food chain. Polysilicate is effective in protecting aluminum and copper. Generally, it is used at dosages of 10 to 15 ppm as SiO 2 at a pH of 7. Polysilicate can be used with molybdate 1 to 3 ppm as MoO 4 to provide enhanced protection of steel. Orthosilicate offers less protection than Polysilicate. It is not very effective even at high dosages and can contribute to severe pitting if not carefully applied and controlled.
Chromate is one of the most effective corrosion inhibitors. It functions as an anodic inhibitor by forming a tenacious film on the metal surface. Traditional dosages are to ppm as CrO 4 at pH 5. Blending chromates with other inhibitors such as zinc, polyphosphate, polysilicate and molybdate permit lower dosages of 5 to 30 ppm as CrO 4.
The use of chromates in open cooling water systems was outlawed by the EPA because of toxicity and disposal problems. Chromates still find restricted use in closed cooling water loops, or in systems that have chromate removal systems prior to discharge of the water. These inhibitors are primarily used for copper and copper alloy inhibition.
Tolytriazole is the most popular of the yellow metal inhibitors in cooling water formulations because of its stability in the presence of chlorine and the low effective dosage. Organic inhibitors are classified as general inhibitors as it is not clear if they function at the anode, cathode or both.
Nitrites are used in closed loop cooling water systems. Because nitrite is a food source for bacteria, it is not acceptable for use in open cooling water systems. Nitrite is an anodic inhibitor that provides excellent protection for mild steel. Typical dosages in closed chilled water systems are to ppm as sodium nitrite. In closed hot water systems the recommended dosage is slightly higher, to ppm as sodium nitrite. Nitrites are blended with other inhibitors such as sodium tetraborate, metaborate, silica and tolytriazole to provide complete multi-metal protection.
The borax component is adjusted to buffer the pH between 9. Manganese phosphate is a new inhibitor that is very effective on copper and copper alloys. Maintaining the Protective Inhibitor Film. Corrosion inhibitors must be applied continuously to establish and maintain the protective film on the metal surface. Initial dosages are generally higher than maintenance dosages to facilitate the establishment of the passivating film at the anode or cathode.
Monitoring Corrosion in Cooling Systems. The effectiveness of a corrosion control program is determined by the degree of protection afforded the system metal. One way of determining this is by periodic inspection of plant equipment. Waiting for the window of opportunity to make the inspection, however, can be costly because once the corrosion damage has occurred few options remain other than repair or replacement of the failure.
It is better to detect corrosion problems before they reach the point of failure so that corrective action can be taken immediately. This is accomplished by several corrosion monitoring methods. Corrosion coupons are the simplest tool for monitoring the corrosion rate in cooling water systems. Thee coupons are pieces of metal of known composition that are inserted in a by-pass flow of water. The corrosion rate is calculated by determining the weight loss of the metal coupon after a specific period of time, usually 30, 60 or 90 days.